Photographic Documentation for Archaeological Discoveries

Archaeology Photos

Archaeologists take photographs of their discoveries in order to document them for posterity. These images should be well exposed, clearly focused, free of distortion and have a contrasting scale or arrow to indicate size.

Photographic documentation also includes the use of a datum standard to establish horizontal spatial positions of finds. This is achieved by using a string pulled tight with a bubble or line level.

Digital Photography

Photography remains the most common method for recording artifacts and archaeological sites. Camera technology continues to improve, as does the software used to manipulate digital images and to generate three-dimensional representations of scanned objects and site plans. Archaeologists may also use unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or specialized kits to take low-level aerial archaeological photos.

Computational imaging, a newer photographic technology that uses computer algorithms to capture and process images, offers archaeologists the ability to create high-resolution, visually appealing photographs of fragile cultural heritage materials, enabling them to rejoin mosaics, reconstruct architectural columns, and record the condition of deteriorated rock art. This process has also been applied to photogrammetry, a documentation technique that combines total station surveying with traditional archaeological photography to produce spatially accurate images and section drawings digitized directly from the photographs.

When choosing a digital camera for field work, archaeologists should consider factors such as file storage, image enlargement capabilities, and long-term preservation requirements. Digital prints require specific care and storage environments to minimize blocking—the adhesion of prints to one another or to storage enclosures—which can lead to delamination, color transfer, and surface damage (Image Permanence Institute Reference Rima and Burge 2009).

On-Site Photography

Photographs are important for documenting the entire process of excavation. Archaeologists want to capture the milestones of their project but also the day-to-day details that keep a dig moving forward. They use photographs to capture the archaeological landscape, record the work areas and even photograph the day-to-day activities of their team members.

Taking close-up records of specific features of artifacts is another important element of on-site photography. For example, archaeologists may take photos of the notches on swords or the areas of damage on tools to aid them in their interpretation of an object.

For a discipline that is so fascinated with uncovering and exploring past lives, it’s interesting how rarely people appear in archaeological photos. This is partly because excavation is dangerous work and people often wear hard hats to protect themselves. But it’s also because archaeologists want to show that the work they do is not romanticised.

Identification

Archaeological photodocumentation is a critical tool for the archaeological community. Whether it is a record shot of an artifact’s appearance before cleaning or a close-up showing details of wear, this form of photographic documentation is important for documenting site viewpoints, displaying scales, and demonstrating how archaeological features were used by past people.

This type of archaeological photography is often done on-site and requires a high level of skill. The photographer must know how to light and frame the object to ensure it is clearly visible to other archaeologists or the public. This can involve adjusting the position of an object, removing objects from a scene, and using different lenses.

While the technology is developing, archaeological digital photography has been slow to catch on in popularity. This may be because it requires a certain amount of specialized training to photograph ancient shipwrecks. In addition, there are issues with data protection and the fact that most archaeological work is done by volunteer groups.

Go Home

The Promise of Security: Exploring the Concept of an Online Safe Playground.

Navigating the digital playground, the concept of an 안전놀이터, which translates to “safe playground,” has taken on new meaning. In the realm of online entertainment, safety is paramount. Imagine a world where the virtual play spaces we frolic in are just as secure and inviting as the well-maintained swing sets and slides of our local parks. This is no mere fantasy; it is a standard that users have rightfully come to expect.

Consider your last foray into the digital landscape. Did you feel the cushion of security underfoot? The assurance that, like the springy surface beneath a jungle gym, there was something in place to break your fall? This is the essence of an online 안전놀이터. The virtual equivalent of soft grass and sun-warmed sand, it’s a realm where worries are as distant as a cloud in the sky.

In this secure domain, you’re free to explore with the exuberance of a child chasing a soccer ball across an open field. Every corner of the 안전놀이터 beckons with the promise of unbridled joy and freedom, yet an invisible safety net encircles you. This sense of protection is not just comforting; it’s invigorating. It empowers you to leap higher, run faster, and play harder, knowing you’re watched over by vigilant digital guardians.

Now, as our journey through the 안전놀이터 draws to a close, consider the tranquility that has surrounded us. This peace of mind is no accident; it is the result of meticulous planning and unwavering dedication to safety. As you take your next steps into the digital world, carry with you the knowledge that an 안전놀이터 is not merely a luxury but a necessity for joyous and carefree exploration.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

1. What is an 안전놀이터?
An 안전놀이터, or “safe playground,” is an online space that provides a secure and protected environment for users to engage in digital activities, reminiscent of a physical playground that is designed to be accident-free and safe for children to play in.

2. Why is an 안전놀이터 important for online activities?
Just as children’s playgrounds need to be safe to prevent injuries, an 안전놀이터 is important to ensure that users are protected from cyber threats like malware, phishing, and personal information breaches while they navigate and enjoy the internet.

3. How can you tell if an online platform is an 안전놀이터?
A platform that qualifies as an 안전놀이터 will typically have robust safety features such as encryption, secure authentication methods, privacy protection, and active monitoring for potential threats.

4. What measures are taken to ensure an online space is a 안전놀이터?
Measures include implementing the latest security protocols, regularly updating systems to guard against new vulnerabilities, educating users about safe online practices, and having a responsive support team to address any security concerns that arise.

5. Can an 안전놀이터 still be fun and engaging?
Absolutely! The principle of an 안전놀이터 is to create a secure environment without sacrificing the enjoyment and engagement of the user. With careful design, these online spaces can be just as thrilling and fulfilling as their real-world counterparts.

XRF Techniques in Archaeology

Using XRF in Archaeology

X-ray fluorescence is one of the main methodologies employed in archaeometry. It can help to identify the material composition of artifacts and understand how they were created.

Bulk chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics and sediments is essential for many purposes, from determining raw materials and identifying economic organization to assessing site use and evaluating preservation conditions. However, bulk analysis using instruments such as ICP-MS or INAA is often expensive and destructive.

X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a widely used technique in laboratory settings. It is a nondestructive method for analysing rocks, minerals, and sediments. Unlike electron microprobes, XRF is capable of analysing large areas and can be portable. Moreover, it can be operated by an unskilled operator. Consequently, archaeologists can perform compositional analysis on artifacts in the field.

Using hand-held XRF, the elements of copper alloyed archaeological objects from the Roman Limes military fort of Vechten in The Netherlands were compared to their corroded surfaces and uncorroded cores. The results showed that the corrosion was caused by copper-alloyed metals and that the corrosion occurred over time.

The XRF results helped archaeologists understand how the materials were used, such as for cooking and drinking water, and the reasons behind different alterations to the surface of the object. It also helped archeologists identify the different types of stones that were used to make lithics. This knowledge can help them to reconstruct ancient life.

X-ray diffraction

XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a versatile analytical technique, particularly suited to assessing major elemental composition in metallic archaeological artefacts. It is deployed in situ and allows the measurement of objects with a limited or no damage to the surface. Moreover, the results can be obtained in a short time and at very low cost.

The bulk chemical characterization of archaeological materials is crucial to understanding how people used and moved through the landscape in the past. However, many traditional techniques for analyzing bulk compositional data are expensive, destructive, and time consuming. Consequently, portable XRF (pXRF) has become an increasingly popular method for assessing the composition of ceramics and sediment.

This webinar will discuss the challenges of archaeological ceramic compositional analysis with pXRF and explore approaches to robust measurement and data evaluation. In addition, it will discuss the calibration process and suggestions for best practices. The webinar will also include a 15 minute Q&A session where our experts can answer your questions.

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Hand held X-ray fluorescence (HH-XRF) is widely used in industry and is slowly being introduced into archaeological/historical applications [1-5]. Special forms of portable XRF (pXRF) are also used for other analytical purposes, such as assessing corrosion layers in lead-based paints or evaluating copper alloys.

pXRF analyses do not require any sample preparation and can be conducted on a variety of samples such as rock, metals, and ceramics. The analysis results in a list of elements present on the surface of the object, giving information similar to a fingerprint. This information is useful in determining the materials of an artefact, as well as identifying possible sources of the material.

pXRF analysis is a powerful tool in identifying the source of an object’s raw materials. However, it is important to remember that pXRF involves the use of ionising radiation and is therefore subject to safety considerations. Those who operate the instrument should understand these issues, be fully trained in its use, and keep a record of all measurements they undertake.

X-ray emission spectroscopy

XRF analysis is a nondestructive and relatively quick technique to determine the chemical composition of materials. It is a valuable tool in archaeology because it can answer questions about construction technology and provenance, among others. It is also useful for dating a site and determining its age. It is an important tool for evaluating the accuracy of other techniques such as carbon dating and radioisotope analysis.

Various pXRF manufacturers promote their instruments as being suitable for archaeological and historical applications. However, the choice of X-ray tube and detector affects both portability and analytical performance. The latter is particularly critical for obtaining reliable trace element data, which is of significant importance for archaeological and historical materials characterization.

Quantitative XRF data consists of counts of specific X-ray fluorescent energies and is used to quantify the amount of an element in a sample. Qualitative data, on the other hand, is relative and only tells you which elements are present in a sample.

Make a beeline for the main page

Studying the Past: Archaeology and Paleontology

The Difference Between Archaeology and Paleontology

Paleontology and archaeology both study the past, but their areas of focus differ. While archaeologists study historic and prehistoric human cultures, paleontologists delve into the history of all life through fossils.

Paleontologists investigate fossils of living things, such as bones, shells, waste, imprints and tracks. These materials help reconstruct the history of organisms and their evolution.

Archaeology

The portable items that archaeologists study are called artifacts. They can include tools, pottery, bones, decorations, buttons, jewelry and written materials. Non-portable items, such as ditches, pits, post holes and caves are known as features. Archaeologists can also find clues about past environments by studying soil samples and examining skeletons.

Because ancient people didn’t leave behind written records, archaeologists rely on artifacts and features to learn about how people lived in the past. They study everything from tools to fire pits, garbage dumps to shards of pottery. They may focus on certain civilizations, such as Assyriology (Mesopotamia), Indology (India), Classical archaeology (Greece and Rome) or Etruscology (Etruscan) to learn about specific cultures.

The work of archaeologists requires broad knowledge of biology, geology and history to solve mysteries uncovered during excavations. A knowledge of chemistry is useful, too, because many chemicals are used to clean and preserve the artifacts. Paleontologists also require broad knowledge of biology and geology, because they must study fossils and try to figure out how the Earth changed over time.

Paleontology

Paleontology is the study of fossils and how they relate to life on Earth. It involves studying rocks, minerals and fossils to understand how different species have changed over time. There are several areas of paleontology including invertebrate paleontology (the study of sea sponges, clams, insects and slugs), micropaleontology (the study of microscopic fossils such as pollen and plant fragments) and vertebrate paleontology (the study of dinosaurs and other vertebrates).

Many paleontologists work in universities and colleges, teaching students and conducting research. Some work in museums, organizing and curating collections of fossils.

A career in paleontology requires a graduate degree, typically a master’s or doctorate of science. Most reputable graduate programs offer funding through research or teaching assistantships and fellowships, which can cover tuition costs and provide a stipend that can help pay for living expenses. The career path of a paleontologist can vary based on personal goals and the specific requirements of individual graduate programs.

Excavation

As people build, dig, and destroy they leave behind traces of their activities. The job of an archaeologist is to find these traces and learn about the lives of the people who created them.

To do this, they must carefully examine the surface of the earth to determine where to dig. They may use a variety of tools and techniques including satellite imaging and global positioning systems to map sites before digging.

Archaeologists also work to keep remains as intact as possible. Ideally, they are left in place where they were found. If this is not possible, then they are carefully moved using a variety of methods.

Once artifacts are excavated they must be cleaned, recorded, and categorized. They are then sent back to the lab for further analysis. Archaeologists create categories called assemblages that are groups of objects that come from the same site and time period. This helps to create a chronology of activity on a site and can provide important clues about the culture.

Analysis

Often, it’s hard to separate archaeology and paleontology because they both dig for artifacts. Paleontologists are experts in finding fossils, and they have special equipment to dig for them. Shovels are used in addition to specialized tools such as trowels, pickaxes and chisels. Nothing is discarded until it has been thoroughly analyzed. Paleontologists must make detailed GIS maps to accurately locate their finds.

Then, they can study them to discover more about the ancient world. They also need to be good at using chemistry, biology and mathematics.

Archaeology is a sub-discipline of anthropology, which studies different human cultures through relics and remains. It also focuses on the cultural implications of past lifestyles. For example, animal bones with stone tool cut marks may indicate that they were exploited by early humans. Archaeologists need to be well-educated in anthropology, ancient history and conservation to qualify for their jobs. They may also need a degree in physics or engineering to gain employment.

Go Home

Creating a Safe Haven: The Significance of 안전놀이터 in the Digital Age

The digital age has bestowed upon us a plethora of platforms to revel in entertainment and gaming. In this realm, the concept of a 안전놀이터 or a “safe playground” is paramount. It represents a virtual haven for enthusiasts and gamers alike, ensuring that their online experiences are not only enjoyable but also secure from the perils that often lurk in the digital shadows.

Imagine venturing into the online world, eager to explore the vast expanse of amusement it has to offer. Here, 안전놀이터 stands as a beacon of trust and reliability. The significance of such a place cannot be overstated; it’s the foundation upon which the trust of the user is built and retained. The quest for online joy should not come with a caveat of risk, and 안전놀이터 champions this notion.

As we delve further, one might ponder the facets that constitute a 안전놀이터. This term is not a mere label but embodies various characteristics that cater to the security and well-being of the user. From state-of-the-art encryption to an assemblage of fair-play policies, an authentic 안전놀이터 ensures that every dice roll, every card flip, and every virtual adventure is enveloped in fairness and transparency.

The essence of these sites is to furnish users with an ambiance devoid of worry, where the only whispers are those of exhilaration and the thrill of potential victories. Regulated by stringent guidelines, they imbue confidence amongst their patrons, fostering an environment where the joy of play is never overshadowed by concern.

Concluding, the digital playgrounds symbolized by a 안전놀이터 are not just about entertainment; they are about an undying commitment to the safety and enjoyment of the user. They are the harbingers of a new dawn in online leisure, where every click, every bet, is a testament to the sanctity of the user experience.

FAQ

Q1: What is an 안전놀이터?
A1: An 안전놀이터, or “safe playground,” refers to online platforms that offer secure and fair entertainment and gaming experiences, protected from security threats and malpractices.

Q2: Why is 안전놀이터 important for online users?
A2: It is crucial for ensuring that the digital engagement of users remains protected from fraudulent activities, maintaining privacy and fairness in the gaming experience.

Q3: What measures do 안전놀이터 platforms take to ensure safety?
A3: They implement encryption technologies, rigorous security protocols, and fair-play policies to safeguard users’ interests and provide a trustworthy online environment.

Q4: How can users identify a genuine 안전놀이터?
A4: Look for platforms with a good reputation, valid gaming licenses, transparent user policies, positive reviews, and robust customer support.

Q5: Can 안전놀이터 guarantee a completely risk-free experience?
A5: While absolute safety can never be guaranteed, a genuine 안전놀이터 takes all possible measures to minimize risks and create a secure gaming environment.

Beyond ‘Core’ Research Zones: A Fresh Perspective on Yorkshire’s Archaeological Past

Yorkshire Archaeological Society

Founded in 1863 the Yorkshire Archaeological Society has a long history of supporting archaeological work in the historic county of Yorkshire. The Society publishes the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, and carries out an active programme of lectures and visits.

A new study of burials at the Mesolithic site of Star Carr has implications for our understanding of Britain’s earliest farmers. It also highlights the need to move beyond ‘core’ research ‘zones.

The Journal of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society

The journal publishes archaeological discoveries, research and reinterpretation of known evidence, edited source material, reviews and bibliographies, covering all periods in the historic county of Yorkshire. It aims to foster a greater interest in the prehistoric past, and encourages broader participation in archaeology. The journal is Gold Open Access, with a readership of over 44,000.

Across the region, there is a clear need to transcend localised archaeological ‘zones’. Discrete sites with exceptional preservation or visibility are often characterised by their own traditions of research, and have had a damaging effect on broader regional agendas. A truly regional agenda needs to address these imbalances, and also offer a fresh perspective on the interplay between stone sources and distinctive regional landscape and settlement complexes. This is a particularly important issue for Yorkshire, which occupies a key position in the distribution of stone artefacts between conventionally seen static Neolithic communities and still mobile Mesolithic elements. Better dating will help to elucidate these issues, as well as enabling the characteristics of different types of monument and their associated landscape settings to be identified with more accuracy. Similarly, environmental data (e.g. pollen sequences) do not easily fit into database systems based on individual sites or monuments, and yet they can provide an essential context for understanding the relationship between culture and nature in the prehistoric period.

The Yorkshire Archaeological Society website

The Society maintains a wide range of archaeological and historical publications and research materials and its headquarters at Claremont close to Leeds is the centre for a large library and archive. It has specialist sections on Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval archaeology and history; Family History; Local History; Industrial History; and Parish Registers and Court Rolls. Members can also join a number of community projects around the County.

Its role is to support local communities in their archaeology by providing training and advice, and through the publication of the Yorkshire Archaeological Advisory Service (WYAAS). The Society also advises planning authorities on heritage issues and holds and actively maintains the West Yorkshire Historic Environment Record (HER).

As well as excavating sites in the three counties, the Society conducts research and publishes its results. It has an extensive catalogue of finds, including stone tools and weapons used by our ancestors. More recent finds include Roman military camps and burial mounds, as well as evidence of a past that saw elephants and rhinoceroses roam the landscape. The Society is also a major contributor to the Yorkshire Dales National Park’s Cave Rescue Teams, which preserve and explore the many underground archaeological sites in the region. These reveal a wilderness that was scoured by glaciers in Ice Ages that have come and gone throughout the centuries.

The Yorkshire Archaeological Society Collection

The Society has a collection of archives, manuscripts and rare or early printed books, which offer insight into the archaeology of Yorkshire from prehistoric to modern times. They are catalogued in three broad groups – manuscripts (MS), manorial documents and deposited papers (DD). These works are lodged with the Special Collections Department of Brotherton Library, University of Leeds. They can be viewed free of charge by appointment.

The collections have been expanded over the years to reflect new developments in the study of prehistory, Roman history and medieval archaeology. The Society also holds a number of important historical and archaeological maps and has an extensive collection of photographs.

In recent years, the Society has been involved in reinvestigating Clark’s excavations at Star Carr, and has undertaken new fieldwork to better understand the site’s context. This has led to the discovery of a unique assemblage of everyday domestic artefacts, from giant food storage jars to delicate drinking cups, as well as evidence for the existence of a sedentary population.

In the twentieth century, the Society has encouraged and supported the work of a wide range of amateur archaeologists, from local societies to specialist period groups. These ‘grassroots’ activities are vital to the advancement of the discipline. They can complement and supplement the work of institutions such as universities, county councils and museums.

Go backwards to the home