The Archaeology of Knowledge by Michel Foucault
Archaeologists study the past by examining artifacts. These objects, such as tools and pottery, reveal how people lived in the past and what their beliefs were. Archaeologists often work with other scientists like linguists and historians to create a complete picture of history.
Before digging, archaeologists must obtain permission from landowners and follow strict legal guidelines. They also take many detailed photos of the landscape before starting to dig.
What is Archaeology?
Archaeologists study human history through the material remains of their lives. This involves surveying, excavation, and analysis of what is found to learn more about past cultures.
Most people associate archaeology with digging, but this is only a small part of what they do. Before digging, archaeologists plan and record their sites. This helps them make accurate discoveries. For example, they mark the location of artifacts with a grid system that uses parallel lines oriented in different directions (like north/south and east/west). Each point on the grid is measured as above or below a standard line called the datum.
Once archaeologists have excavated a site, they carefully describe and compare artifacts. They also perform scientific tests to date them. One such test is radiocarbon dating, which determines the age of organic materials by measuring the amount of carbon-14 in them. The method is based on the fact that all living things have the same chemical element in them. However, this element comes in several forms (or isotopes), and some are much more stable than others.
What is Foucault’s Book?
Foucault’s wide-ranging and groundbreaking works on history, philosophy, social theory, and critical theory have transformed contemporary thought. During his life he lectured extensively and gave taped versions of his courses at the College de France, which are now being published in print. He was a dedicated activist, with particular sympathy for marginalized groups such as prisoners, the mentally ill, and homosexuals.
In The Archaeology of Knowledge he develops his archaeological method, which he had outlined earlier in The Order of Things and the History of Madness. This dispenses with the search for deeper meaning behind discursive formations and instead focuses on differences within the system itself. Thus he avoids the pitfalls of structuralism, which seeks to find a unifying system beneath the slew of possible statements in discourse and instead looks for what makes one statement distinct from another within a specific historical context. It is the study of these distinctions that allows the historian to reveal the contingent turns of history and not just their progressive progress.
What is Foucault’s Solution?
Foucault’s overall political stance is contested, both by those who criticize his work and by those who are sympathetic to it. He is generally opposed to nineteenth century Marxism and to phenomenological notions of a sovereign subject that was self-aware and capable of understanding itself.
He also argues that representation no longer plays the same role that it played for Descartes up to Kant, and that ideas do not necessarily represent their objects by virtue of some kind of relation of resemblance. This does not mean, however, that ideas do not have properties; it just means that they do not constitute a representation of an object by any particular means.
Foucault eventually demoted the archaeology of knowledge in favor of genealogy, a method that traced the ensemble of historical contingencies and accidents that made up the ancestry of any one currently accepted theory or concept. The aim of genealogy was to expose the artificiality of the dividing line between the putatively illegitimate and the putatively legitimate.
What is the Solution?
Foucault argues that the traditional method of studying history, which involves arranging historical events in chronological order, is incorrect. Instead, he argues that historians should attempt to showcase the transitions that occurred throughout history. This approach is based on his method known as the archaeology of knowledge. In this book, Foucault lays out his method of archaeological critique which he had already used in three earlier, more directly historical works: Madness and Civilization (1961), The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and The Order of Things ( 1966). Foucault uses this method to examine the ways that our culture projects its own consciousness onto the past. This is done through an analysis of silent monuments, inert traces and things left by the past. Ultimately, this allows for an understanding of the way that society evolves.